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On May 6, 2002, Steve Jobs opened WWDC with a funeral for Classic Mac OS, 18 years later, OS X finally reached its own end of the road: the next version of macOS is not 10.16, but 11.0. OS X has one of the most fascinating family trees in technology; to understand its significance requires understanding each of its forebearers. Unix does refer to a specific operating system that originated in AT&T’s Bell Labs (the copyrights of which are owned by Novell), but thanks to a settlement with the U.S. government (that was widely criticized for going easy on the telecoms giant), Unix was widely-licensed to universities in particular. One of the most popular variants that resulted was the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), developed at the University of California, Berkeley. Today you can still run nearly any Unix program on macOS, but particularly with some of the security changes made in Catalina, you are liable to run into permissions issues, particularly when it comes to seamlessly link programs together. Mach was a microkernel developed at Carnegie Mellon University; the concept of a microkernel is to run the smallest amount of software necessary for the core functionality of an operating system in the most privileged mode and put all other functionality into less privileged modes. OS X doesn’t have a true microkernel — the BSD subsystem runs in the same privileged mode, for performance reasons — but the modular structure of a microkernel-type design makes it easier to port to different processor architectures, or remove operating system functionality that is not needed for different types of devices (there is, of course, lots of other work that goes into a porting a modern operating system; this is a dramatic simplification). The story of Steve Jobs’ visiting Xerox is as mistaken as it is well-known; the Xerox Alto and its groundbreaking mouse-driven graphical user interface were well-known around Silicon Valley, thanks to the thousands of demos the Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) did and the papers it had published. PARC’s problem is that Xerox cared more about making money from copy machines than in figuring out how to bring the Alto to market. That doesn’t change just how much of an inspiration the Alto was to Jobs in particular: after the visit, he pushed the Lisa computer to have a graphical user interface, and it was why he took over the Macintosh project, determined to make an inexpensive computer that was far easier to use than anything that had come before it. The Macintosh was not the first Apple computer: that was the Apple I, and then the iconic Apple II. What made the Apple II unique was its explicit focus on consumers, not businesses; interestingly, what made the Apple II successful was VisiCalc, the first spreadsheet application, which is to say that the Apple II sold primarily to businesses. Still, the truth is that Apple has been a consumer company from the very beginning. This is why the Mac is best thought of as the child of Apple and Xerox: Apple understood consumers and wanted to sell products to them, and Xerox provided the inspiration for what those products should look like. It was NeXTSTEP, meanwhile, that was the child of Unix and Mach: an extremely modular design, from its own architecture to its focus on object-oriented programming and its inclusion of different “kits” that were easy to fit together to create new programs. If one were to add iOS to the family tree I illustrated above, most would put it under Mac OS X; I think, though, iOS is best understood as another child of Classic Mac and NeXT, but this time the resemblance is to the Apple side of the family. For the complete story stop by OUR FORUM.

The Evil Corp group, also known as the Dridex gang, has been active since 2007 when several members previously involved with the ZeuS banking trojan decided to try their own luck at distributing malware. Ther initial efforts were focused on distributing the Cridex banking trojan, a malware strain that later evolved into the Dridex banking trojan, and later subsequently evolved into the Dridex multi-purpose malware toolkit. Across the years, Evil Corp, through its Dridex operation became one of the largest malware and spam botnets on the internet. The group distributed their own malware, but also malware for other criminal groups, along with custom spam messaging. The group dipped their toes into ransomware distribution by spreading the Locky ransomware to home consumers throughout 2016. As the ransomware market began shifting targeting from home consumers to enterprise targets, the Evil Corp gang adapted as well, and after dropping the Locky strain for good, they created new custom ransomware named BitPaymer. The group used their vast botnet of computers infected with the Dridex malware to look for corporate networks and then deploy BitPaymer on the largest enterprise targets they could identify. The group operated BitPaymer between 2017 and 2019 when new infections started dropping off. The reasons are unclear, but the slowdown in BitPaymer infections may have also had something to do with the Dridex botnet slowing down its activity between 2017 and 2019. Fox-IT says that this slowdown culminated with the DOJ charges filed in December 2019. Following the high-profile indictments, the group went silent for a full month until January 2020. According to Fox-IT, the group came back to life in January and spurted a few malware campaigns, usually for other crooks, until March, when they again went silent. However, when the group returned to life for the second time in 2020, they did so with new tools. Fox-IT says the group created a new ransomware strain to replace the aging BitPaymer variant that they've been using since early 2017. The actual reasons for replacing BitPaymer are shrouded in mystery; however, Fox-IT, says this replacement appears to be a totally new ransomware strain, written from scratch. Fox-IT says it named this new ransomware WastedLocker based on the file extension it adds to encrypted files, usually consisting of the victim's name and the string "wasted." Security researchers say that an analysis of this new ransomware has revealed little code reuse or code similarities between BitPaymer and WastedLocker; however, some similarities still remain in the ransom note text. In an interview with ZDNet earlier today, Fox-IT says they've been tracking the use of this new ransomware family since May 2020. They say the ransomware has been exclusively deployed against US companies. "Ransom demands that are asked by Evil Corp are now typically into the millions," Maarten van Dantzig, Fox-IT security researcher, told ZDNet today. Want to know more please visit OUR FORUM.

Microsoft has made it official: Windows 10’s next update will now be officially known as Windows 10 version 20H2 and it would be a minor release with a focus on quality improvements. Microsoft hasn’t revealed when users should expect Windows 10 20H2, the next feature update, but it’s likely that the rollout will take place during the usual October – November 2020 period or some earlier date. Microsoft is positioning the Windows 10 20H2 as not a full feature release with major changes or new features, but instead, the update is expected to include improvements, fixes, security or enterprise features, and quality enhancements. In Windows 10’s 20H2 update, you can expect general enhancements. For example, Microsoft will make further improvements to the Windows Search algorithm to reduce the indexing process when you actively use the system. Likewise, version 20H2 will also include the new Microsoft Edge. Windows 10 version 20H2 or Manganese update is going to be released to Windows 10 May 2020 Update systems in form of a small enablement package and it will bump the build number to 19042 from 19041. There’s another significant change in Windows 10’s fall 2020 update. According to Microsoft, Windows 10 version number that you see in Settings > System > About will no longer be actual numbers, which means version number will be the same as the codename. Typically, the version number incorporates the month and the year of when the update is finalized. Starting with 20H2, Microsoft plans to use the codename as the version number to accommodate the revised shipping date and avoid confusion. Windows 10 feature updates will still use a consumer-friendly name, such as November 2020 Update, if the update is released in November. Later this year, both Windows 10 version 2004 and version 20H2 will get the same cumulative update with an identical set of improvements. That’s because the Windows 10 version 20H2 is something more akin to a service pack than a proper feature update. As noted above, Microsoft hasn’t committed to an official release date for Windows 10 version 20H2 update to the millions of PCs who aren’t in the Insider beta testing program. For 19H2, we released bits to some Insiders with features turned off and released bits to some Insiders with featured turned on. In response to Insider feedback, we are not doing that for 20H2. Insiders who choose to download and install 20H2 on their PC will get new 20H2 features as they are delivered. Insiders in the Beta Channel who don’t choose to download and install 20H2 won’t see new features. Follow this upcoming release on OUR FORUM.

Will Microsoft’s Surface Duo be here three months earlier than expected? The latest leak suggests so, which means Redmond’s Android-powered duel screen hardware could be in a head to head with Samsung’s second iteration of the Galaxy Fold. Details on the accelerated release schedule have been reported by the team at Windows Latest: "Microsoft hasn’t told us much about the specs and release date of the Surface Duo, but according to internal sources, the tech giant is now planning to launch its first dual-screen Android phone before Samsung Galaxy Fold 2. This is the current target. "Microsoft is wrapping up development of the Surface Duo and is getting ready to launch its dual-screen Surface Duo before Samsung’s Galaxy Fold 2, which is expected to be announced in the first week of August.” There are two big and obvious caveats to this, but let’s assume Taniyama-Shimura and take the launch dates of the Galaxy Fold 2 and the Surface Duo as read. Samsung has been working its ‘Second Half’ launch event earlier and earlier over the years. Previously it was a week or so ahead of Apple’s iPhone launch, then there was clear space, and now there could be five weeks between the two events. That gives Samsung a clear run at the digital ink written in the smartphone space. The release of the device will likely be two to three weeks after the event, which which will keep all of Fold 2 sales (along with the premium Galaxy Note 20) in the reporting for the fourth calendar quarter. Into this comes Microsoft’s Surface Duo, its Android-powered folding device. While Microsoft is not pitching this as a smartphone, the media are going to see ‘folding’, ‘Android’, ‘phone’, and ‘big names competing with each other’, and the story angles are obvious. When the Surface Duo was introduced in October 2019, the release date was not locked in, instead, we had ‘The Holidays 2020’, heavily suggesting the fourth quarter of the year. That long gap between reveal and release has allowed Microsoft to do much of the development in public, and the occasional leaked images of the device - notably on the desk of Microsoft’s Senior Director Frank Shaw while he tweeted he was working from home - have helped build up the excitement in the public. Changes could also be made to the SDK to allow for a folding device, along with commits to open source projects to support devices like the Surface Duo. It’s worth noting that the Surface Duo is not yet a mainstream device in the way that the Galaxy Fold 2 is. Perhaps it should be treated in the same way - the Surface’s bread and butter come from the Surface Pro and Surface Laptop machines - with a bit of high end from the Surface Book family. But we all know that’s not going to be the case. The Surface Duo is going under the metaphorical microscope. And if Microsoft’s Surface team has the confidence to launch it earlier than expected, we have a classic case of under-promising and over-delivering. Assuming it delivers… Given the issues Samsung faced when it launched the first Galaxy Fold, that’s one comparison Microsoft will not want to be made. Check out OUR FORUM for more.

Over the past few months, Windows 10 updates have caused serious issues for some people, and it seems like the company has released yet another disastrous patch – KB4560960 and KB4557957. The June 2020 cumulative update was supposed to be an important patch for people running the two most recent versions of Windows 10, but it appears to have introduced new bugs on some configurations. Both Windows 10 November 2019 Update and Windows 10 May 2020 Update recently had a patch issued to fix critical and important security problems. At the time of its release, we noted that Microsoft is not aware of any issues and we were wondering what it might break – and now we have more details. KB4557957 for Windows 10 version 2004 and KB4560960 for Windows 10 version 1909 are breaking down printers. This is according to several posts on Reddit, Microsoft’s Answers website, and other forums. “Has anyone had issues today with printing and the latest Windows update? We’re seeing problems with Ricoh printers that were previously stable. Changing the print driver seems to help but that’s going to be a pain if I have to roll it out to too many clients,” one user noted. In the same thread, other users also confirmed that this appears to be an issue with both KB4557957 and KB4560960 for Windows 10. “After this update, documents in my printing queue appeared for a second then disappeared. Uninstalling this update immediately fixed the problem,” another user wrote in Microsoft’s forum. The issue is that Windows 10 KB4557957 / KB4560960 updates are seemingly causing major problems mainly for Ricoh printers, but with some other brands too including Brother and Canon. Particularly, users have noted issues when printing their documents and the stability of the connection is also affected. A network technician claimed that PCL5 driver does not work with Windows 10 after installing the update and driver age does not matter. Things might improve if you install the newest version of PCL6 “universal driver”, but as one user notes, this is not a realistic approach for businesses to service hundreds of devices. The updates appear to be a complete nightmare for those with printers, which could be costly one in terms of the company’s reputation as the bug is also hitting businesses and organizations using Windows 10. Fortunately, Microsoft is aware of the reports and the company is already working on a fix, which could be deployed soon, according to a post published by Microsoft’s independent community advisor. If you’re unable to uninstall the update via Windows Settings, you can always remove it using Command Prompt. First, open Command Prompt with admin rights and run the following command after replacing the [id] with the KB (update) number. Users are also reporting other problems after recent Windows 10 cumulative updates. One user noted that the update removed their documents, files, background image, and the settings. We have more along with the steps necessary to uninstall the cumulative update posted on Our Forum.

When even the Department of Homeland Security’s Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency is starting to get nervous about your unpatched Windows 10 system, maybe it’s time to make sure you’ve downloaded everything you need from Windows Update. This time around, the agency is reacting to the emergence of new proof-of-concept attacks related to a vulnerability that was discovered in March—yes, three months ago. The exploit, “SMBGhost,” take advantage of an issue with Windows’ server message block protocol that could give an attacker unrestricted access to run whatever they want on an affected machine. (That includes servers, obviously, but also any unpatched clients connecting to one that has already been hit.) All you have to do to stay safe is to make sure you’ve installed the latest updates for Windows 10. That’s it. It’s incredibly easy to do this on your home machines—and, really, they should be updated already if you’ve been using them regularly and have them connected to the internet. Here’s the quirk, though. If you’re using a version of Windows 10 that’s older than version 1903 (released in May of last year), you’re in the clear. Your operating system doesn’t yet support SMBv3.1.1 compression, which is the source of the bug that’s being exploited by SMBGhost. So, in some weird way, not updating has kept you safer from this attack than installing a major update and getting lazy about the rest. That’s not a practice you should continue, however. It’s time to update to the latest version of Windows—version 2004, as of when we wrote this article—and make sure you stay on top of your Patch Tuesday updates and any other critical out-of-schedule updates. But there’s a caveat to that, too. As you no doubt know, Microsoft tends to have some issues with its various Windows 10 updates. So much so that it’s probably not worth your while to install every single update you can get your hands on the minute it’s released. Were I you—and this is what I do, too—I’d make sure I’m using at least Windows version 1909. I’d then use its ability to pause Windows Updates, found via Settings > Update & Security, to keep your operating system from downloading and installing updates the moment they’re released. As for how long you should wait before you install one, that’s up to you and the severity of the update in question. If an update is patching a zero-day exploit, you might want to err on the side of installing it sooner; if it’s a gigantic feature update, you can probably wait a week (or two weeks) to make sure that system-breaking bugs haven’t revealed themselves as part of the update’s public launch. Is this taxing? Yes. Will you forget about it? Sure. Will you remember it when you can’t understand why your system worked well on Tuesday but is coughing up some terrible glitch on a Wednesday morning? You will now. We have more posted on OUR FORUM.